بنیان‌های محافظه‌کارانه در راهبرد سیاست خارجی دونالد ترامپ

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای اندیشه‌ سیاسی، گروه علوم سیاسی، واحد چالوس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

2 دانشیار گروه علوم سیاسی، واحد چالوس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

چکیده

دونالد ترامپ بحث‌های زیادی را دربارۀ معنای واقعی محافظه‌کاری، به خصوص در حوزۀ سیاست خارجی آمریکا برانگیخته است. به موازات آن، اندیشمندان محافظه‌کار سیاست خارجی نیز، در خصوص معقول بودن رویکرد بین‌المللی ترامپ عقاید مختلفی دارند. این عقاید لزوماً متناسب با دسته‌بندی‌ طیف‌های محافظه‌کار در آمریکا نیستند. بر همین اساس و برای روشن شدن این مسأله، مقالۀ حاضر به این پرسش پرداخته است که «بازتاب مکتب محافظه‌کاری بر سیاست خارجی دونالد ترامپ، اساساً ناظر به چه سیاست‌ها و اقداماتی بوده است و خطوط اقدام و اصول بنیادین آن بر چه پایه‌هایی استوار است». در مقام فرضیه و پاسخ، اشاره می‌شود که سیاست خارجی ترامپ، الگویی جدید از محافظه‌کاری را در پرتو تجمیع دو طیف «محافظه‌کاری ملی‌گرایانه» و «محافظه‌کاری واقع‌گرایانه» ارائه و نمایندگی می‌کند که از لحاظ فلسفی، روانشناسانی و سیاسی «محافظه‌کار» است؛ یعنی به دنبال آن است که چیزی واقع‌گرایانه (برتری نظامی و پایگاه تولیدی) و آرمان‌گرایانه (حق حاکمیت و استثناگرایی) را حفظ و تقویت کند و همزمان، بر راهبرد «اول آمریکا»، نفی مسئولیت‌های بین‌المللی، کاستن از تعهدات نظامی در قبال متحدین و کاربستِ یک‌جانبه‌گرایی پایبند بماند. در اینجا ابعاد این موضوع به روش کیفی - تحلیلی مورد واکاوی و تجزیه تحلیل قرار گرفته است.

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دوره 11، شماره 2 - شماره پیاپی 42
این شماره فصلنامه روابط خارجی با تأخیر و در سال 1399 منتشر می‌شود. به دلیل رعایت تسلسل شمارگان فصلنامه، تاریخ آن به سال 1398 است.
تابستان 1398
صفحه 37-67